Concept of disease

Siddha Medicine emphasises the theory of Interdependent phenomenon of the Universe and the Human Body and applies this law of nature in diagnosis and treatment of disease.

"The Body is in the Cosmos, The Cosmos is in the body, Whatever is present in the Cosmos, Is present in the Human body"

The concept of Disease, according to the Siddha system, is explained through the Theory of Three Humours (Tri-dosha Theory). Siddha system of medicine classifies three humours namely Vali (Vatham), Azhal (Pitham), Aiyam (Kapham) and called this as Mukkuttram, which is the cause for health and disease. During every moment of life of human being, the three humours are in action through the 5 elements of nature. The three humours must have a harmonious relationship to keep the body and mind in healthy state. When they are disturbed, they bring about disease’s peculiar to their influence.


Siddha system of medicine has its own unique method of diagnosis to identify diseases and their causes. Examination of eight specific items are required, which is commonly known as Envagai Thervukal. These are:

-Na (Tongue) : Black in Vatha,Yellow or red in Pitha, white in kapha

-Niram (Colour) :Dark in Vatha, Yellow or red in Pitha, pale in Kapha

-Mozhi (Voice) :Normal in Vatha, High pitched in Pitha, low pitched in Kapha

-Kan (Eyes) : Muddy conjunctiva, yellow or red in Pitha, pale in Kapha

-Sparisam (touch) : Dry in Vatha, Warm in Pitha, Chill in Kapha

-Mala(Stool) : Black stools indicate Vatha, yellow indicates Pitha, Pale in Kapha

-Neer (urine) : Early morning urine is examined. Straw colour indicates indigestion, reddish yellow indicates excessive heat, saffron colour indicates jaundice.

-Nadi (pulse) : Pulse can be felt in the blood vessel one inch below the thumb of the patient, by softly pressing the index, middle and ring finger over it. Experienced physicians can read the degree of distortion of Vatha, Pittha and Kapha pulses.


Concept of medicine in

Siddha Medicine means medicine that is perfect. Siddha medicine revitalizes and rejuvenates dysfunctional organs that cause the disease and strives to maintain the ratio of the three humours namely Vatha, Pitha and kapha. Diet and lifestyle also play a major role in Siddha Medicine. This concept of “do’s and don’ts” is termed as Pathyam and Apathyam.

The primary aim of Siddha medicine has always been to evolve drugs that could arrest the decay of the body, as preserving the body without disease and ageing is essential for realizing the Truth- ‘Atman’ residing within the body.

“Medicine means the prevention of physical illness; Medicine means the prevention of mental illness; Prevention means to avert illness; Medicine therefore is the prevention of death”




The objective of treatment in the Siddha system of medicine is aimed at keeping the three humours in equilibrium and maintenance of seven elements. Hence treatment includes a proper diet, medicine and a disciplined lifestyle to restore the equilibrium of the three humours.

The Physician has to take into account the patient, environment, the meteorological consideration, age, sex, race, habits, mental frame, habitat, diet, appetite, physical condition, physiological constitution etc.. Different treatment procedures are adopted primarily to bring back the deranged humour to normalcy which includes inducing purgation (Baedhi) in deranged Vatham, Emesis (Sathi) in deranged Pitham, Nasal application (Nasyam) and ophthalmic application (Kalikam) in Kapham. Blood letting, Leech application, Bone setting, Varmam (treatment given using specific body points and disease occurring due to trauma of these body points) and Physical manipulative therapies are some other treatment modalities/ procedures